Main Article Content

Authors

Introduction: The host niche for Staphylococcus aureus (SA) are the anterior nares; however, vaginal colonization rates between 14% and 17.1% in pregnant women have been recently reported, raising interest about the potential risk in postpartum women and in neonates from colonized mothers.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of nasal and vaginal colonization of SA and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates in pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Cartagena, Colombia.
Methods: Nasal and vaginal swabs were obtained from participants and subjected to microbiological and molecular assays. A post discharge follow-up was performed for up to four weeks.
Results: From 100 pregnant women enrolled in the study, 34 were colonized with SA; 29 only in the nares, three only in the vagina, and two at both sites. Colonization of pregnant women with SA was more common in the nares than in the vagina or at both sites [29/34 (85.3%) vs 3/34 (8.8%) and 2/34 (5.9%); p<0.05]. We obtained 36 SA isolates, nine (25%) of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), one was from the vagina; thus, the overall MRSA colonization rate among pregnant women was 9%. Molecular analysis showed that Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were carried by the vaginal MRSA, seven of the nasal MRSA, and two of the Methicillinsensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates. Two MRSA isolates carried SCCmec type I and seven carried SCCmec type IV.
Conclusions: Nasal colonization rate for SA in the study population was similar to previous reports. However, the frequency of nasal colonization of MRSA was higher while vaginal colonization of SA was lower than previously
reported in other studies for similar populations. The MRSA isolates obtained showed a community profile.
Correa, O., Delgado, K., Rangel, C., Bello, A., & Reyes, N. (2012). Nasal and vaginal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pregnant women in Cartagena, Colombia. Colombia Medica, 43(1), 19–27. https://doi.org/10.25100/cm.v43i1.1055

Peacock SJ, de Silva I, Lowy FD. What determines nasal

carriage of Staphylococcus aureus? Trends Microbiol. 2001; 9:605-10.

Safdar N, Bradley EA. The risk of infection after nasal

colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. Am J Med. 2008; 121:310-5.

Zetola N, Francis JS, Nuermberger EL, Bishai WR.

Community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus

aureus: an emerging threat. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005; 5: 275-86.

Huang YC, Chao AS, Chang SD, et al. Association of

Staphylococcus aureus colonization in parturient mothers

and their babies. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009; 28: 742-4.

Reusch M, Ghosh P, Ham C, Klotchko A, Singapuri S,

Everett G. Prevalence of MRSA colonization in peripartum

mothers and their newborn infants. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;

: 667-71.

Laibl VR, Sheffield JS, Roberts S, McIntire DD, Trevino

S, Wendel GD. Clinical presentation of communityacquired

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 106: 461-5.

Chen KT, Campbell H, Borrell LN, Huard RC, Saiman L,

Della-Latta P. Predictors and outcomes for pregnant

women with vaginal-rectal carriage of communityassociated

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Am J

Perinatol. 2007; 24: 235-40.

Stumpf PG, Flores M, Murillo J. Serious postpartum

infection due to MRSA in an asymptomatic carrier: case

report and review. Am J Perinatol. 2008; 25: 413-5.

Beigi R, Hanrahan J. Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA

colonization rates among gravidas admitted to labor and

delivery: a pilot study. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 2007:70876.

Chen KT, Huard RC, Della-Latta P, Saiman L. Prevalence

of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 108:482-7.

Andrews WW, Schelonka R, Waites K, Stamm A, Cliver

SP, Moser S. Genital tract methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus

aureus: risk of vertical transmission in pregnant women.

Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 111: 113-8.

Bourgeois-Nicolaos N, Lucet JC, Daubié C, et al. Maternal vaginal colonisation by Staphylococcus aureus and newborn acquisition at delivery. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2010; 24:488-91.

Pinter DM, Mandel J, Hulten KG, Minkoff H, Tosi MF.

Maternal-infant perinatal transmission of methicillinresistant

and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Am

J Perinatol. 2009; 26: 145-51.

Dehority W, Wang E, Vernon PS, Lee C, Perdreau-

Remington F, Bradley J. Community-associated methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing fasciitis in a neonate.

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006; 25: 1080-1.

Deurenberg RH, Stobberingh EE. The molecular evolution

of hospital- and community-associated methicillin-resistant

Staphylococcus aureus. Curr Mol Med. 2009; 9: 100-15.

Diep BA, Otto M. The role of virulence determinants in

community-associated MRSA pathogenesis. Trends

Microbiol. 2008; 16: 361-9.

Bettin A, Suárez P, Bedoya A, Reyes N. Staphylococcus aureus in residents from a nursing-home in Cartagena. Rev Salud Publica. 2008; 10: 650-7.

Millar BC, Jiru X, Moore JE, Earle JA. A simple and

sensitive method to extract bacterial, yeast and fungal

DNA from blood culture material. J Microbiol Methods.

; 42: 139-47.

Zhang K, McClure JA, Elsayed S, Louie T, Conly JM.

Novel multiplex PCR assay for characterization and

concomitant subtyping of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types I to V in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2005; 43: 5026-33.

Brakstad OG, Aasbakk K, Maeland JA. Detection of

Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the nuc gene. J Clin Microbiol. 1992; 30: 1654-60.

Lina G, Piemont Y, Godail-Gamot F, et al. Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus

aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia. Clin Infect

Dis. 1999; 29: 1128-32.

Olarte NM, Valderrama IA, Reyes KR, et al. Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in a Colombian hospital intensive care unit: phenotypic and molecular characterization. Biomedica. 2010; 30: 353-61.

Castro-Orozco R, Villafane-Ferrer LM, Alvarez-Rivera E,

De Arco MM, Rambaut-Donado CL, Vitola-Heins GV.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children

attending school in Cartagena, Colombia. Rev Salud Publica.

; 12: 454-63.

Gray J, Patwardhan SC, Martin W. Meticillin-resistant

Staphylococcus aureus screening in obstetrics: a review. J Hosp Infect. 2010; 75: 89-92.

Beigi RH, Bunge K, Song Y, Lee BY. Epidemiologic and

economic effect of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in obstetrics. Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 113: 983-91.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Received 2012-02-23
Accepted 2012-02-23
Published 2012-02-23