Main Article Content

Introduction: Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people.

Objective: Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation.

Methods: The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where “diabetes” was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with “health” terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors.

Results: The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach’s α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson’s Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively.

Conclusions: HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users’ unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder’s outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs.

Daniel Jorge Luis Serrani Azcurra, National University of Rosario, Rosario, Argentina. Maimónides University, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Professor at Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Psychology, National University of Rosario, Rosario, Argentina. Maimónides University, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Serrani Azcurra, D. J. L. (2014). Elders Health Empowerment Scale. Spanish adaptation and psychometric analysis. Colombia Medica, 45(4), 179–185.

McAllister M, Dunn G, Payne K, Davies L, Todd C. Patient empowerment: The need to consider it as a measurable patient-reported outcome for chronic conditions. BMC Health Services Research. 2012;12(1):157.

Schulman-Green D, Jaser S, Martin F, Alonzo A, Grey M, McCorkle R, et al. Processes of self-management in chronic illness. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2012;44(2):136–44.

Laverack G. Improving health outcomes through community empowerment: a review of the literature. J Health Popul Nutrit. 2011;24(1):113–20.

Cattaneo LB, Chapman AR. The process of empowerment: a model for use in research and practice. Am Psychol. 2010;65(7):646–59.

Mola E. Patient empowerment, an additional characteristic of the European definitions of general practice/family medicine. Eur J Gen Pract. 2013;19:128–31.

Martin P, Tamblyn R, Ahmed S, Tannenbaum C. An educational intervention to reduce the use of potentially inappropriate medications among older adults (EMPOWER study): protocol for a cluster randomized trial. Trials. 2013;14(1):80.

Shearer NB, Fleury J, Ward KA, O'Brien AM Empowerment interventions for older adults. West J Nurs Res. 2012;34(1):24–51.

Arvidsson S, Bergman S, Arvidsson B, Fridlund B, Tingström P. Psychometric properties of the Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale, SWE-RES-23. Musculoskeletal Care. 2012;10(2):101–9.

Small N, Bower P, Chew-Graham CA, Whalley D, Protheroe J. Patient empowerment in long-term conditions: development and preliminary testing of a new measure. BMC Health Services Research. 2013;13(1):263.

Anderson RM, Fitzgerald JT, Gruppen LD, Funnell MM, Oh MS. The diabetes empowerment scale-short form (DES-SF) Diabetes Care. 2013;26(5):1641–2. (Fre).

Hansson L, Björkman T. Empowerment in people with a mental illness: reliability and validity of the Swedish version of an empowerment scale. Scand J Caring Sci. 2005;19(1):32–8.

Sanjuán SP, Pérez GAM, Bermúdez MJ. The general self-efficacy scalepsychometric data from the Spanish adaptation. Psicothema. 2000;12(Suppl 2):509–13.

Sousa VD, Rojjanasrirat W. Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross-cultural health care research: a clear and user-friendly guideline. J Eval Clin Pract. 2011;17(2):268–74.

Barrio-Cantalejo IM, Simón-Lorda P, Melguizo M, Escalona I, Marijuán MI, Hernando P. Validación de la Escala INFLESZ para evaluar la legibilidad de los textos dirigidos a pacientes. Anales Sis San Navarra. 2008;31(2):135–52.

Machin D, Campbell MJ, Tan SB, Tan SH. Sample size tables for clinical studies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2011.

Altman DG. How large a sample? In: Gore SM, Altman DG (eds). Statistics in Practice. London, UK: British Medical Association;1982.

Comrey A, Lee HB. A first course in factor analysis. 2nd Ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1973.

Hu L, Bentler PM, Kano Y. Can test statistics in covariance structure analysis be trusted? Psychological Bulletin. 1992;112:351–62.

Schweizer, K Some guidelines concerning the modeling of traits and abilities in test construction. Eur J Psychol Assess. 2010;26(1):1–2.

Doubova SV, Espinosa P, Infante C, Aguirre R, Rodríguez L, Olivares R. Adaptation and validation of scales to measure self-efficacy and empowerment for self-care in Mexican climacteric stage women. Salud Publica Mex. 2013;55(3):257–66.

Tu YC, Wang RH, Yeh SH. Relationship between perceived empowerment care and quality of life among elderly residents within nursing homes in Taiwan: A questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2006;43(6):673–80.

Mokkink LB, Terwee CB, Patrick DL, Alonso J, Stratford PW, Knol DL, et al. The COSMIN checklist for assessing the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties of health status measurement instruments: an international Delphi study. Qual Life Res. 2010;19(4):539–49.

Andrew N, Peterson NA. Empowerment theory: clarifying the nature of higher-order multidimensional constructs. Am J Community Psychol. 2014;53(1-2):96–108.

Palloni A, McEniry M. Aging and health status of elderly in Latin America and the Caribbean: preliminary findings. J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2007;22(3):263–85.

Cleghorn, GD, Lussier, J. Velez. M. Canovitch. M. Licciardello. M. Stanlic. S. Educating and Empowering Elders: Improving the Health of Senior Latino Diabetics through Community Collaboration. J Health Disparities Res Practice. 2008;2(2):1–16.


Download data is not yet available.
Received 2014-02-11
Accepted 2014-12-17
Published 2014-12-30