Main Article Content



An accurate understanding of co-occurrence and comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Colombia is crucial for public health.


A secondary analysis was conducted, using a 2003/2004 government´s population database to determine the lifetime associations between AUD and other mental and addictive disorders in people of Colombia aged 18-65 years.


Several statistical analysis were performed: testing prevalence difference in mental disorders by whether the individual had an AUD; a stratified analysis by gender and logistic regression analyses accounting for differences in demographic, socio-economic, behavioral and self-reported health status variables.


People with AUD comprised 9% of the population, of which 88% were males and on average 37 years old. They were more likely to be males, be working, and be current smokers; and less likely to be at home or retired. The population with AUD had greater chance to comply with criteria for all disorders but minor depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, nicotine dependence, and oppositional defiant disorder.


This study demonstrates a high prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population with AUD in Colombia. The findings highlight the importance of comorbidity as a sign of disease severity and impact on public health and supports the need for training of more professionals and developing appropriate interventions and services.


Hernan G. Rincon-Hoyos, Fundacion Valle del Hospital & Universidad Icesi School of Medicine

Staff Psychiatrist & Associate Professor /Departamento de Psiquiatría Fundación Valle del Lili - Universidad Icesi

Alejandro Castillo, Fundacion Valle del Hospital & Universidad Icesi School of Medicine

Staff Psychiatrist & Professor /Departamento de Psiquiatría Fundación Valle del Lili - Universidad Icesi

Sergio I. Prada, Universidad Icesi & PROESA

Senior Research Associate
Rincon-Hoyos, H. G., Castillo, A., & Prada, S. I. (2024). Alcohol use disorders and psychiatric diseases in Colombia. Colombia Medica, 47(1), 31–37. (Original work published February 19, 2016)

Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet.382(9904):1575-86.

World Health Organization. Global status report on alcohol and health 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014. xiv, 376 p. p.

Cranford JA, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Zucker RA. Alcohol involvement as a function of co-occurring alcohol use disorders and major depressive episode: evidence from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2011;117(2-3):145-51.

Edwards G. Alcohol policy and the public good. Addiction. 1997;92 Suppl 1:S73-9.

Room R C-CB, Gureje O, Jernigan D, Maskela K, Marshall M, et al. Alcohol in a changing world: drinking patterns and problems in developing societies. Cambridge Cambridge University Press; 2003.

Parry CDH. Alcohol problems in developing countries: challenges for the new millennium. Suchtmed. 2000(2):216-20.

Di Florio A, Craddock N, van den Bree M. Alcohol misuse in bipolar disorder. A systematic review and meta-analysis of comorbidity rates. European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists. 2014;29(3):117-24.

Social MdlP. Estudio Nacional de Consumo de Drogas en Colombia (Resumen Ejecutivo). In: Estupefacientes DNd, editor. Bogotá2009.

Grittner U, Kuntsche S, Graham K, Bloomfield K. Social inequalities and gender differences in the experience of alcohol-related problems. Alcohol and alcoholism. 2012;47(5):597-605.

Ilomaki R, Sodervall J, Ilomaki E, Hakko H, Rasanen P, Workgroup S-. Drug-dependent boys are more depressed compared to girls: a comorbidity study of substance dependence and mental disorders. European addiction research. 2008;14(3):161-8.

Dyster-Aas J, Willebrand M, Wikehult B, Gerdin B, Ekselius L. Major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following severe burn injury in relation to lifetime psychiatric morbidity. The Journal of trauma. 2008;64(5):1349-56.

Pulay AJ, Dawson DA, Hasin DS, Goldstein RB, Ruan WJ, Pickering RP, et al. Violent behavior and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2008;69(1):12-22.

Alcoholism NIoAAa. Alcohol and AIDS. A guide to research issues and opportunities. Bethesda: NIAAA; 2001.

Rehm J, Monteiro M. Alcohol consumption and burden of disease in the Americas: implications for alcohol policy. Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health. 2005;18(4-5):241-8.

D'Onofrio G, Becker B, Woolard RH. The impact of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and abuse in the emergency department. Emergency medicine clinics of North America. 2006;24(4):925-67.

Gilder DA, Lau P, Gross A, Ehlers CL. A co-morbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders in young adult Mexican Americans. Journal of addictive diseases. 2007;26(4):31-40.

Schuckit MA. Comorbidity between substance use disorders and psychiatric conditions. Addiction. 2006;101 Suppl 1:76-88.

Falk D, Yi HY, Hiller-Sturmhofel S. An epidemiologic analysis of co-occurring alcohol and drug use and disorders: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Alcohol research & health : the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2008;31(2):100-10.

Schneier FR, Foose TE, Hasin DS, Heimberg RG, Liu SM, Grant BF, et al. Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder co-morbidity in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychological medicine. 2010;40(6):977-88.

Colombia MdlPSd, Social FF. Estudio Nacional de Salud Mental - Colombia 2003. Cali: Ministerio de la Protección Social de Colombia; 2005.

Posada-Villa JA, Aguilar-Gaxiola SA, Magaña CG, Gómez LC. Prevalencia de trastornos mentales y uso de servicios: resultados preliminares del Estudio Nacional de Salud Mental, Colombia, 2003. Rev Colomb Psiquiatr. 2004;33(3 (Septiembre)):41-62.

Rincon HG, Granados M, Unutzer J, Gomez M, Duran R, Badiel M, et al. Prevalence, detection and treatment of anxiety, depression, and delirium in the adult critical care unit. Psychosomatics. 2001;42(5):391-6.

Castillo A, Rincon-Hoyos HG, J.E. L, J.D V, S. B, F. P, et al. Psychosocial and clinical characteristics and psychiatric co-morbidity among men and women with HIV/AIDS under medical treatment at a tertiary health care center in Cali, Colombia. Revcolombpsiquiatr. 2008;37(1):29-39.

Clark BJ, Moss M. Secondary prevention in the intensive care unit: does intensive care unit admission represent a "teachable moment?". Critical care medicine. 2011;39(6):1500-6.

Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of general psychiatry. 2005;62(6):617-27.

Degenhardt L, Chiu WT, Sampson N, Kessler RC, Anthony JC, Angermeyer M, et al. Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. PLoS medicine. 2008;5(7):e141.

Rehm J, Taylor B, Room R. Global burden of disease from alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2006;25(6):503-13.

Kohn R, Levav I, de Almeida JM, Vicente B, Andrade L, Caraveo-Anduaga JJ, et al. [Mental disorders in Latin America and the Caribbean: a public health priority]. Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health. 2005;18(4-5):229-40.

Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders JB, Monteiro MG, World Health Organization. Dept. of Mental Health and Substance Dependence. AUDIT : the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test : guidelines for use in primary health care. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001. 38 p. p.

Merikangas KR, Akiskal HS, Angst J, Greenberg PE, Hirschfeld RM, Petukhova M, et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Archives of general psychiatry. 2007;64(5):543-52.

Le Strat Y, Gorwood P. Does lower response to alcohol explain the high co-morbidity between bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence? Med Hypotheses. 2008;71(1):81-4.

Grant BF, Stinson FS, Dawson DA, Chou SP, Dufour MC, Compton W, et al. Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of general psychiatry. 2004;61(8):807-16.

Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ. Structural models of the comorbidity of internalizing disorders and substance use disorders in a longitudinal birth cohort. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. 2011;46(10):933-42.

Falk DE, Yi HY, Hiller-Sturmhöfel S. An epidemiologic analysis of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use and disorders: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Alcohol research & health : the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2006;29(3):162-71.

Hasin DS, Stinson FS, Ogburn E, Grant BF. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence in the United States: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of general psychiatry. 2007;64(7):830-42.

Moss HB, Lynch KG. Comorbid disruptive behavior disorder symptoms and their relationship to adolescent alcohol use disorders. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2001;64(1):75-83.

Ul-Haq Z, Mackay DF, Pell JP. Association between Self-Reported General and Mental Health and Adverse Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 19 625 Scottish Adults. PloS one. 2014;9(4):e93857.

III WMC, Cottler LB, Jacobs JL, Ben-Abdallah A, Spitznagel EL. The Role of Psychiatric Disorders in Predicting Drug Dependence Treatment Outcomes. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003;160(5):890-5.

Knox T, Jerger L, Tang A. Alcohol, HIV/AIDS, and Liver Disease. In: Watson RR, Preedy VR, Zibadi S, editors. Alcohol, Nutrition, and Health Consequences. Nutrition and Health: Humana Press; 2013. p. 287-303.

Hensing G. The health consequences of alcohol and drug abuse Health in Sweden: The National Public Health Report 2012. Chapter 11. Scandinavian journal of public health. 2012;40(9 suppl):211-28.

Room R, Babor T, Rehm J. Alcohol and public health. Lancet. 2005;365(9458):519-30.

Lucas GM, Gebo KA, Chaisson RE, Moore RD. Longitudinal assessment of the effects of drug and alcohol abuse on HIV-1 treatment outcomes in an urban clinic. Aids. 2002;16(5):767-74.

Stein DJ, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Bruffaerts R, de Jonge P, Liu Z, et al. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension. General hospital psychiatry. 2014;36(2):142-9.

Carr CP, Martins CM, Stingel AM, Lemgruber VB, Juruena MF. The role of early life stress in adult psychiatric disorders: a systematic review according to childhood trauma subtypes. The Journal of nervous and mental disease. 2013;201(12):1007-20.

Najt P, Fusar-Poli P, Brambilla P. Co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders: a review on the potential predictors and clinical outcomes. Psychiatry Research. 2011;186(2):159-64.

Zimmermann US, Blomeyer D, Laucht M, Mann KF. How gene-stress-behavior interactions can promote adolescent alcohol use: the roles of predrinking allostatic load and childhood behavior disorders. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007;86(2):246-62.

Pettinati HM, O'Brien CP, Dundon WD. Current status of co-occurring mood and substance use disorders: a new therapeutic target. The American journal of psychiatry. 2013;170(1):23-30.

Díaz Heredia LP, Marziale MHP. El papel de los profesionales en centros de atención en drogas en ambulatorios de la ciudad de Bogotá, Colombia. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 2010;18:573-81


Download data is not yet available.
Received 2015-06-22
Accepted 2016-01-25
Published 2024-06-07