Exofocal changes in experimental focal cerebral ischemia: an experimental approach and its clinical correlation.
AbstractIntroduction: The brain is an extraordinarily dynamic structure specially its physiology in response to pathological events. This response include several mechanisms such as changes in cell metabolism, genes expression and possible modifications in cell phenotype and in connectivity that reflect activation of processes like neurogenesis, neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis. Several aspects related with neuroplasticity has been proposed as part of the pathophysiological bases to understand brain ischemia and its exofocal phenomena. Progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of brain lesion has required the use of experimental models to evaluate cellular events that occur immediately after the lesion or later, to associate this changes with clinical observations and to propose pharmacological neuroprotection therapies.
Objective: The purpose of the present work is to compile the advances in understanding of plasticity after brain lesion, mainly related with exofocal areas to a core lesion.
Discussion and conclusions: The present work shows recent advances in neuroplasticity based on experimental approaches, and preclinical findings related with the exofocal ischemic phenomena: changes in areas not completely ischemic, changes in no ischemic areas affected by chemical or electrical signals, changes in the pattern of connectivity and adaptative changes in remote areas to the ischemic core. Finally, we discuss clinical aspects associated with this changes, experimental strategies and clinical pharmacological interventions.
- Neuronal plasticity
- Brain ischemia
- Glial cells
- Experimental ischemia
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