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Objective: The study concerned the effects of Plasmodium vivax infection on the balance of pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and their relationship with some clinical and epidemiology outcomes.

Methods: Thirty-five pregnant women were involved in this study.  Of these, 15 subjects were included at delivery (GMP+), and 20 had no exposition to infection throughout the pregnancy (GMP-C-). Epidemiological and clinical data were recorded after reviewing the clinical records. At delivery, whole blood from the mother as well as placental tissue was collected. Diagnosis of infection was performed by thick smear and real time PCR. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were measured by real time PCR.

Results: The clinical and epidemiological variables explored were similar in both groups, with the exception of gestational age. When comparing the GMP+ group with the GMP-C- group, it is clear that although the differences generally are not significant, pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in both maternal blood and placental; the anti-inflammatories are elevated in the mother and reduced in the placenta, and the chemokines are reduced in both, except for  MCP-1 which is elevated in both.

Conclusion: The results appear to be strongly affected by the small number of women with GM by P. vivax in childbirth. Additional studies are needed with more women from both this region and elsewhere.


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Received 2012-08-26
Accepted 2013-08-16
Published 2024-06-24