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The hallmark of tuberculosis is the granuloma, an organized cellular accumulation playing a key role in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These structures sequester and contain mycobacterial cells preventing active disease, while long term maintenance of granulomas leads to latent disease. Clear understanding on mechanisms involved in granuloma formation and maintenance is lacking.


to monitor granuloma formation and to determine gene expression profiles induced during the granulomatous response to M. tuberculosis (H37Ra).


We used a previously characterized in vitro human model. Cellular aggregation was followed daily with microscopy and Wright staining for 5 days. Granulomas were collected at 24 h, RNA extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix human microarrays.


Daily microscopic examination revealed gradual formation of granulomas in response to mycobacterial infection. Granulomatous structures persisted for 96 h, and then began to disappear.


Microarray analysis identified genes in the innate immune response and antigen presentation pathways activated during the in vitro granulomatous response to live mycobacterial cells, revealing very early changes in gene expression of the human granulomatous response.


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Received 2014-05-08
Accepted 2015-02-02
Published 2015-03-30