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Patients with pulmonary hypertension present limited tolerance to exercise and aerobic capacity, which is reflected in the reduction in peak oxygen consumption and functional performance. This intolerance to exercise has traditionally been attributed to cardiac and respiratory dysfunction. However, as it happens in other chronic diseases, lower-limb and respiratory muscle alterations are also involved in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

Increasing evidence suggests that physical exercise training is an efficient and safe strategy. The recommendation for light and moderate-intensity exercise is made within the framework of pulmonary rehabilitation, and its benefits have been previously described.

In diseases such as COPD, lower-limb muscle function, exercise tolerance and quality of life improve following exercise training. And just as with COPD, it is necessary to promote evidence-based interventions with pulmonary hypertension. This narrative review focuses on the evaluation, safety and efficacy of training the respiratory muscles and the muscles of upper and lower extremities in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

Vicente Benavides-Cordoba, 1. Universidad del Valle 2, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali, Colombia


Martijn A. Spruit, 1. Department of Research & Development, CIRO+, Horn, The Netherlands 2. Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+) 3. NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht, The Netherlands

Executive Board Member Ciro and Professor at Maastricht University



Benavides-Cordoba, V., & Spruit, M. A. (2023). Muscle training in patients with pulmonary hypertension. a narrative review. Colombia Medica, 52(4), e2015163. (Original work published February 14, 2022)


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